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2015年12月5日星期六

What is the Relation between Kidneys and Protein in Kidney Disease

Normally, urine contains a certain amount of protein less than 150mg/24h. Besides
Kidney Diseases, many factors can increase protein in urine, such as strenuous sports, the food of high protein and a fever. However, the increasing protein in urine is related to kidneys.
Renal tissues related to protein in urine How Do Kidney Disease Patients Know They Have Protein in Urine
Kidneys are able to filtrate metabolic waste out to form the urine and prevent the nutrients escaping from blood flow at the same time. Their renal functions are attributed to unique tissues and structures, especially renal intrinsic cells including glomerular endothelial cells, glomerular epithelial cells, epithelial cells of renal tubules, mesangial cells and renal ibroblasts. With mechanical barrier and charge barrier, glomerular epithelial cells play the main role in preventing protein from blood.How Much Protein Should a Person with Renal Disease Eat
Protein and glomerular epithelial cells both carry negative charges. As same charges repel each other, protein can not pass though the hiatuses of glomerular epithelial cells.How Can IgA Nephropathy Patients Avoid Losing Protein
Besides mechanical barrier, there are many foot processes among glomerular epithelial cells, which can prevent some macromolecular protein releasing from blood flow.
Abnormal structure causing Protein in urine  Stop Protein Leakage in Nephrotic Syndrome Without Steroids
When people are infected, immune system will react against virus and bacteria invading. Immune complex are produced from the combination of antibody and antigen. Those immune complexes will reach and deposit in kidney along with blood circulation. The deposition of those immune complexes can damage renal intrinsic cells especially glomerular epithelial cells. Negative charges disappear and foot processes are effaced and run together. A lot of protein escapes uninterruptedly into urine through glomerular epithelial cells. This kind of urine is called proteinuria.

Less protein decreases plasma osmotic pressure but pressure increases in Portal vein, which keep more fluid in tissues and cause edema or swellings. In late stage, other cells are damaged and the normal renal tissues are covered by the extracellular matrix, kidneys fail in draining out excess water and sodium which also worsens edema.

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