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2015年6月4日星期四

Relationship between Glomerulus and Proteinuria

A mass of proteinuria is one of the most dominant symptoms of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and the forming of it has a close relationship with glomeruli. The followings are the three root causes of the apparance of proteinuria.
Glomerulus is made of a group of blood capillaries. Capillary wall is composed of endothelial cell, basilar membrane and epithelial cell. This structure is called glomerular basilar membrane. When glomeruli are damaged, the following three pathological processes will appear.
● Damaged Mechanical Barrier.
There distributes many big and small holes in glomerular basilar membrane. For healthy people, the big hole always in an inactive state. When macromolecules flow through kidneys, these macromolecules will be stopped from threading it and only some proteins are allowed to get through. Therefore, for healthy people, there is a little protein in their urine. When people get Chronic Kidney Disease, glomeruli are damaged, so that they can not stop these macromolecules from getting through. Consequently, a mass of protein appear in urine.Proteinuria and Kidney Disease and Is Kidney Transplant a Must with Kidney Failure
● Disordered Adjustment of Mesangium to Filtration Barrier
Mesangium is located among glomerular capillaries and it is composed of mesangial cell and mesangial matrix. For healthy people, mesangial cells can adjust glomerular filtration membrane, so as to help to prevent protein from being leaked out. However, for patients with Chronic Kidney Disease, the adjustment function of mesangial cell decreases, so glomerular filtration membrane can not play its function effectively. As a result, large amount of protein are leaked from kidney.What Is the Solution to Stop Dialysis Treatment
● Damaged Charge Barrier.Looking for Acupressure Points for Renal Failure
In the surface of endothelial cell, basilar membrane and epithelial cell, there are a lot of negative charges. According to the principle that two like charges repel each other; these negative charges can stop protein which carry negative charges from being filtered out. Therefore, when glomeruli are damaged, negative charges reduce, so as to increase the protein in urine.

From the above three pathological processes, we can conclude that the major cause of proteinuria is the excessive leakage of protein. When these protein are leaked from glomeruli, they will be discharged through urine. As a result, large amount of proteinuria appear in the urine.

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